What causes HIE?
HIE has many causes, including placental insufficiency, uterine rupture, placental abruption, true umbilical knots, cord compression, maternal blood clotting disorders, fetal maternal hemorrhage, extremely low maternal blood pressure, trauma during delivery, placental blood clots, shoulder dystocia, cord prolapse, aneurysm rupture, cardiac arrest and near SIDS events.
How is HIE diagnosed?
Diagnosis of HIE in a newborn baby is done using a few different diagnostic tools. The Sarnat Scale, which is based upon how the baby appears after birth or injury, or presentation at the hospital is one of them, in addition to imaging such as EEG, ultrasound and MRI, and checking cord blood gas levels.
The baby or child may present with the following symptoms:
Depending on certain criteria, therapeutic hypothermia, or cooling, has been shown to reduce death and disability in many cases. The cooling treatment is the most widely known and used treatment, but there are other treatments being trialed around the world. Cooling can be done on the whole body, or through a cooling cap placed on the head. The baby may also need other medical intervention to support their organs or to treat seizures as they recover.
How many babies are diagnosed with HIE?
About two to three in every 1,000 full-term births will be affected by HIE every year.