Screening examinations are tests performed to find disease before symptoms begin.
The goal of screening is to detect disease at its earliest and most treatable stage.
Screening helps in diagnosing early and treating early to reduce Cost of Healthcare and early recovery .
Screening tests may include laboratory tests to check blood and other fluids, genetic tests that look for inherited genetic markers linked to disease, and imaging tests that produce pictures of the inside of the body.
In heart screening, individuals with no signs or symptoms of coronary artery disease — the most common form of heart disease — may be evaluated to measure:
• The amount of cholesterol carried in the blood known as low-density lipoproteins (LDL)—high levels of which can lead to a buildup in the arteries—and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which absorb cholesterol and carry it back to the liver, where it is flushed from the body.
• Blood glucose levels, the amount of sugar present in the blood.
• The amount of C-reactive protein in the blood with a test called high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-crp) assay. C-reactive protein appears in higher amounts when there is inflammation or swelling somewhere in the body.
• Blood pressure levels, the force of blood against the artery walls both when the heart beats and when it is at rest (systolic and diastolic, respectively).
Depending on the results of initial screening tests and the presence of risk factors for coronary artery disease, your doctor may recommend additional testing, including:
• Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG), which measures the electrical activity of the heart and reveals information on heart rate and rhythm.
• Exercise cardiac stress test (also called a cardiac stress test or exercise electrocardiogram) which involves walking on a treadmill or pedaling a stationary bike at increasing levels of difficulty, while heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure and the electrical activity of the heart (using electrocardiography) are monitored to determine if there is adequate blood flow to the heart when the heart is stressed. Patients who are unable to exercise instead receive a medication that makes the heart beat harder and faster.
• Echocardiography, which uses ultrasound to create moving pictures of the heart. In a stress echocardiography, an ultrasound of the heart is performed before and after the heart is stressed either through exercise or a medication that stimulates the heart.
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It is always more expensive to treat after an event and late intervention increases mortality and costs .
Screening early and diagnosing early is the key to Affordable health .
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